Definition of Conduct Disorder (CD) & Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
CD and ODD may be diagnosed when a child is defiant, aggressive and anti-social to a greater extent than expected for their age. They often misread situations and have difficulty empathising with others and interpret others’ behaviour as aggressive which makes them responds with aggression.
ODD is less severe than conduct disorder, it is prevalent in around 2% of girls and 5% of boys. ODD is likely a combination of a child’s home environment and inherited factors. CD can either have an early onset (by the age of 10) or an adolescent onset (more common). It is four times more common in boys and the prevalence is approximately 6%.
Signs and Symptoms of ODD
The most common symptoms a child with ODD will display are:
A strong will, disrespect and opposition to adults or people in authoritative positions
Being defiant in almost any situation
Temper tantrums disproportionate to the child’s age
Argumentativeness, lying, anger, and resentment.
Children with ODD have difficulty making then keeping friends as they purposely like to annoy people. Children with ODD often have, ADHD, depression and anxiety.
Treatment of ODD
ODD is not treated with medication but rather with talking therapy.
Signs and Symptoms of CD
There are many symptoms of CD below are a few:
Cruelty to people and animals
Stealing from people through aggression
Forcing someone into sex
Destruction of property such as fire
Lying to others
Running away from home
Truancy from school
Treatment of CD
Treatment tends to be with talking therapy, including family therapy and medication for the depression, anti-depressants, aggression, anti-psychotics and ADHD, stimulants or non-stimulants, if these symptoms are present.
An initial one hour assessment will be required, and a further one hour assessment is usually required.
During this time we will cover several points:
A SNAP assessment will be sent to school ONLY if in agreement after the initial assessment.
I will contact school ONLY if in agreement after the initial assessment.
If any other psychiatric condition is found the child will be referred to the other pathways, listed in this section.
If Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or family therapy is necessary a referral will be made.
Dr. Giovanni Giaroli MD MSc PGDipCAT